Home » Volumes » Volume 51 September/October 2018 » Trypanosoma cruzi seroprevalence among solid organ donors in Ceará State, Brazil

Trypanosoma cruzi seroprevalence among solid organ donors in Ceará State, Brazil

Alanna Carla da Costa1, 2 José Damião da Silva Filho2 Eduardo Arrais Rocha3 Mônica Coelho Andrade4 Arduina Sofia Ortet de Barros Vasconcelos Fidalgo1, 2 Eliana Régia Barbosa Almeida5 Carlos Eduardo Menezes Viana2, 6 Erlane Chaves Freitas2 Ivo Castelo Branco Coelho7 Maria de Fátima Oliveira1, 2

1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Brasil. 2Laboratório de Pesquisa em Doença de Chagas, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Brasil. 3Hospital Universitário Walter Cantídio, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Brasil. 4Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médicas, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Brasil. 5Central de Transplantes, Secretaria de Saúde do Estado do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Brasil. 6Programa de Pós-Graduação em Patologia, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Brasil. 7Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Brasil.

DOI: 10.1590/0037-8682-0406-2017

Brazil has the largest public organ transplantation system worldwide, and 95% of these procedures are carried out with public resources.


INTRODUCTION:The transmission of Chagas disease (CD) through blood transfusion, organ transplantation, and oral transmission has gained greater visibility as a result of intensified vector control activities in endemic regions and to control CD in non-endemic regions. In Brazil, Ceará is one of the states that perform the most organ transplants. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in organ donor candidates.


A retrospective analysis was performed on data from potential organ donors at the Center of Transplantation of the State of Ceará from 2010 – 2015.


Data from a total of 2,822 potential donors were obtained, of which 1,038 were effective donors and 1,784 were excluded, likely due to lack of family authorization or medical contraindication. The prevalence of T. cruzi infection among these potential donors was 1.3% (n = 29). The majority of infected donors were males aged 41 – 60 years, residing in the interior of the state. Interestingly, 72.4% (n = 21) had positive or inconclusive serology for additional infections, such as cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B and C, and toxoplasmosis. Probability analysis revealed that stroke was the most common cause of death among potential donors with CD.


There was a high prevalence of CD and other coinfections among potential solid organ donors in Ceará, and statistical tests have shown that these individuals are at increased risk of stroke when compared to potential non-reactive donors. This work highlights the importance of screening DC infection in potential donors.

Keywords: Organ transplantation; Trypanosoma cruzi; Prevalence; Brazil; Chagas disease; Stroke


Brazil has the largest public organ transplantation system worldwide, and 95% of these procedures are carried out with public resources1. Ceará is one of the states that perform the most organ transplants, and 1,510 transplants were performed in 20171. The activities performed by the transplant center occur 24 hours a day, seven days a week. The main ones are: regulating the list of organ and tissue receptors, receiving notifications from potential donors diagnosed with brain death, and coordinating the necessary supervision for transplant surgery. There is a growing need for solid organs for transplantation, and serological profile of potential donors is an important measure used to evaluate the suitable donor candidates2.

Organ transplantation from donors who are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi is most often avoided due to the risk of disease transmission3. Studies have reported amastigote forms in several organs, including those for which the parasite does not have a natural tropism. Organ transplantation represents an alternative transmission route for Chagas disease (CD) that is facilitated by immunosuppressive therapy required for transplant recipients. Rates of transmission from an infected donor to recipient range from 10% to 20%3,4, with the risk of T. cruzi transmission being more significant in heart transplantation compared to liver or kidney transplantation.

Chagas disease is prevalent in both endemic and several nonendemic countries, including the United States and Spain5. It is endemic in Latin America where an estimated six to eight million people are infected, although the exact prevalence is difficult to determine as only 2% of cases are diagnosed. In Brazil, an estimated two to three million people are infected68. According to the Mortality Information System, 68,206 CD-related deaths were recorded in Brazil from 2000 to 2013, an average of 4,872 deaths per year9.

The northeastern region of Brazil, especially the State of Ceará, is at high risk for CD transmission for many reasons. This socioeconomically challenged region contains high rates of suboptimal housing with living conditions that are conducive to the triatomine bug, a vector for CD. In addition, Ceará is the epicenter of the Triatoma brasiliensis and Triatoma pseudomaculata species, which are difficult to control by traditional means recommended by the National Health Foundation [Fundação Nacional de Saúde (FNS)]10,11. Finally, demands for the control of emerging and reemerging diseases, such as dengue, has led to a worrying and progressive reduction of the entomological vigilance activities used to control CD11.

Therefore, the present study sought to determine the seroprevalence of T. cruzi in potential organ donors in the State of Ceará, and to examine the epidemiological profile of these individuals.


Study design and sampling

The medical record at the Transplantation Center of the State of Ceará in Fortaleza, Brazil includes a form used by medical to collect structured data from the patient, and data were used for analysis. These data included information on sex, age, place of origin, and serological screening results for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), syphilis, Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), hepatitis B and C, toxoplasmosis, and CD. All potential donors from 2010 to 2015 were included in this study. Only donors with incomplete information regarding serology for CD were excluded.

Ethical considerations

This project complied with Brazil’s National Health Council regulations (Directive CNS 466/12) governing human research and it was approved by the Federal University of Ceará’s Research Ethics Committee (COMEPE-UFC), under protocol number53833816.5.0000.5054 in December 2015.

Data analysis

Data were recorded in Excel (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA, USA) and analyzed using GraphPad Prism version 5.0 (GraphPad, San Diego, CA, USA). The frequency of positive CD cases was calculated using the proportion of positive serological results and the total number of donors over the study period. Fisher’s exact test was used to establish associations between categorical variables and groups. Simple linear regression was used to determine trends between the variables, with the year serving as the independent variable. For all tests, results were considered significant at p-value < 0.05.


In total, 2,822 potential organ donors were identified from January 2010 to December 2015. Of these, 1,038 became actual donors, and 1,784 were excluded for a variety of reasons (e.g., lack of family authorization, medical contraindication). Effective donors were mostly male (n = 699; 67.3%) aged 41 – 60 years (n = 436; 42%). A total of 566 (54.5%) donors died due to head trauma, 407 (39.2%) due to stroke, and 65 (6.3%) due to other causes (e.g., central nervous system tumor, encephalopathy anoxic).

Table 1 displays the prevalence of CD in potential organ donors. The number of CD serological tests performed each year increased during the 6-year period. A total of 27 (1.2%) potential donors with positive CD serology and two (0.1%) had inconclusive results. The prevalence of CD among potential donors varied between 0.9 and 1.6%. Overall, 2014 saw the highest number of positive cases (n = 8; 1.5%) and 2010 the lowest (n = 1; 1.0%). Organs from these individuals were rejected due to their reactive serology for this disease.

TABLE 1: Prevalence of Chagas disease in potential organ donors in the state of Ceará from 2010 to 2015. 

Year Serology tests Positive Indeterminate Prevalence (%)
2010 104 1 0 1.0
2011 349 5 0 1.4
2012 393 4 0 1.0
2013 466 3 1 0.9
2014 523 8 0 1.5
2015 451 6 1 1.6
Total 2,286 27 2 1.3

As shown in Table 2, 79.3% (n = 23) of potential donors with positive or inconclusive CD serology were male, 51.8% were aged 41- 60 years (n = 15), and 65.5% resided in the state’s countryside (n = 19). The primary cause of death of deceased donors was stroke (n = 11; 37.9%). There were 21 potential donors with positive or inconclusive results for at least one other infection (e.g., CMV, toxoplasmosis, hepatitis B and C). As detailed in Table 3, potential organ donors with positive or inconclusive serology for CD were more likely to have died from a stroke than from traumatic brain injury (TBI) (relative risk = 2.472; p = 0.0195) and were more likely to be aged over 60 years (relative risk = 2.535; p = 0.0346).

TABLE 2: Profile of potential organ donors presenting reactive serology (positive/indeterminate) for Chagas disease from 2010 to 2015. 

Variable Group Number Percentage
Sex female 6 20.7
male 23 79.3
Total 29
Age (years) 18 – 40 7 24.1
41- 60 15 51.8
≥ 60 7 24.1
Total 29
Origin Country side 19 65.5
Fortaleza 10 34.5
Total 29
Cause of death CVA- Hemorrhagic 11 37.9
CVA – Ischemic 7 24.1
TBI – Physical aggression 1 3.4
TBI – Traffic accident 7 24.1
TBI – other causes 3 10.3
Total 29
Blood group A+ 7 24.1
A- 1 3.4
B+ 6 20.7
AB+ 1 3.4
O+ 13 44.8
O- 1 3.4
Total 29
Coinfection* cytomegalovirus IgG 21 72.4
hepatitis B 6 20.7
hepatitis C 5 17.2
toxoplasmosis IgG 17 58.6
Total 49

CVA: cerebrovascular accident; TBI: traumatic brain injury; IgG: immunoglobulin G. *Each patient may have more than one coinfection.

TABLE 3: Profiles of donors with negative serology and potential donors with reactive serology (positive/indeterminate) for Chagas disease from 2010 to 2015, by sex, age, cause of death, and blood group. 

Chagas disease
Profiles of donors positive* negative
N % N % p**
female 6 20.7 339 32.6 0.2275
male 23 79.3 699 67.4
Total 29 100.0 1038 100.0
Age (years)
<5 0 0.0 10 0.9 1.0000
06 a 11 0 0.0 21 2.0 1.0000
12 a 17 0 0.0 86 8.3 0.6140
18-40 7 24.1 373 36.0 0.2394
41-60 15 51.8 436 42.0 0.3422
>60 7 24.1 112 10.8 0.0346
Total 29 100.0 1038 100.0
Cause of death
TBI 11 38.0 566 54.5 0.0897
CVA 18 62.0 407 39.2 0.0195
Other 0 0.0 65 6.3 0.2570
Total 29 100.0 1038 100.0
Blood group
A 8 27.6 369 35.6 0.6972
AB 1 3.4 31 3.0 0.5914
B 6 20.7 98 9.4 0.0550
O 14 48.3 540 52.0 0.7105
Total 29 100.0 1038 100.0

TBI: traumatic brain injury; CVA: cerebrovascular accident; *Positive: positive/indeterminate serology. **p = Fisher’s Test p-value. Fisher’s Test included positive/inconclusive potential donors and actual donors (negative serology).


In the present report, no organs or tissues from individuals with reactive serology for CD were used for transplantation, according to the discretion of the medical teams from the transplant centers included in this study.

Despite the possible risk of infection, the Brazilian Intensive Medicine Association (AMIB) Committee of Organ Donation and Transplantation has stated that individuals with positive or inconclusive CD serology can donate organs including kidneys, pancreas, liver, and lungs at the discretion of the patient and the transplant center staff. The 2015 Second Brazilian Consensus on CD prohibits the transplantation of the heart and intestines from individuals infected with CD and recommends against transplanting other organs from these donors13,14.

According to Clemente et al.3, donation should be postponed in donors with symptomatic disease. Transplantation should be avoided in donors who have died of CD, as the risk of transmission from the donor organs and blood is 10% to 20%, and 75% for heart transplantation3.

The 2015 Second Brazilian Consensus4 does not recommend the prophylactic treatment with benzonidazole (BNZ) of transplanted individuals, but rather the accomplishment of sequential monitoring with clinical evaluations, indirect parasitological examinations, and serological tests, because systematic data on the efficacy of BNZ prophylaxis (defined when the drug was administered in the absence of an acute scenario) for recipients after transplantation do not exist. Prophylaxis has not been shown to prevent the transmission of T. cruzi from positive donors to negative recipients4.

Clinical and serological and parasitological tests should be performed every 2 months up to 1 year after transplant, and subsequently every 6 months, as long as immunosuppression persists. If an acute infection is detected by parasitological or serological tests at any time, conventional antiparasitic treatment should be instituted14.

Most potential donors with positive or inconclusive CD serology were from municipalities located in the countryside (Table 2). Many municipalities in this area have a high risk of CD transmission, including Limoeiro do Norte, Jaguaruana, Russas, Quixeré, Tauá, Independência, and Crateús. Although many potential donors were from Fortaleza, the state capital, it is likely that many were born in these high-risk areas and later migrated to this large capital city1518.

The prevalence of CD in the present study is relatively high (1.3%), which confirms that Ceará is endemic to this disease. This is likely due to an abundance of disease vectors and living conditions that are conducive to its transmission. It is difficult to compare the present results with other regions of the country, as studies that document CD infection in organ donation candidates are rare. There are few studies involving solid organ transplants and CD, and this is one of the first studies to assess the incidence of CD among organ donors in Brazil. A similar study in the State of Santa Catarina reported a 0.3% prevalence of CD among potential organ donors from 2001 to 2007121921.

Studies from other countries have found similar rates of CD, however, the diversity in population and environment obscures these comparisons. A study carried out in Mexico among organ donors found a 2% prevalence of T. cruzi infection from 2009 to 2010. In Argentina, the prevalence was 4.6% in 2009. In Southern California, a 0.3% prevalence was reported from 2002 to 2004. In the Los Angeles County blood bank, confirmed seroreactivity for T. cruzi was found to be 0.1%2124.

In most Brazilian states, death from TBI is decreasing while death from stroke is increasing among deceased donors25. This is likely due to Law No. 11,705 (Dry Law), which has resulted in fewer fatal traffic accidents25,26. Despite a 6.2% reduction in automobile accidents, Fusco et al.27 found that TBI continues to be the leading cause of death among deceased donors in Ceará27.

In the present study, cerebrovascular events were the primary cause of death for deceased donors with positive or inconclusive CD serology. Stroke is a well-described complication of CD, and the immunopathogenic mechanisms of the disease have been linked to stroke and death. Aortic aneurysms are associated with higher incidences of embolism, although further studies are needed to understand this connection2830.

Similarly, mural thromboses may be present in areas without symptomatic manifestations, and the resulting embolic event is then the first, and sometimes only, presentation of the disease. A recent meta-analysis has shown that CD doubles the risk of stroke. Due to the retrospective nature of this study, whether the stroke was caused by CD in these individuals cannot be determined2830.

In the present study, many individuals had other infections in addition to CD (n = 7; 25%), including cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis hepatitis B and C. The likelihood of T. cruzi infection depends on the recipient’s immune system; therefore, the use of immunosuppressants in potentially infected recipients is a matter of concern. T. cruzi/HIV coinfection has been widely discussed. The lower survival rate of individuals with coinfection is related to the presence of reactivation of CD and the natural complications of both diseases31. The role of antiretroviral treatment in the evolution of the patient with coinfection has not yet been defined. Quantification of the parasite burden from other infections in both the donor and recipient can help prevent or at least detect the infection, thereby allowing for early treatment that improves patient outcome. This would be beneficial in both endemic and non-endemic countries32,33.

In 2009, Decree No. 2,600 approved the Technical Regulation of the National Transplantation System and required mandatory screening for T. cruzi infection in Brazil using a high-sensitivity test34. For this study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the serological screening for CD. All organs from potential donors with reactive or inconclusive serology for CD were considered unfit for donation and discarded. It was not possible to obtain data on the prevalence of T. cruzi infection in organ recipient candidates and their serological profiles, which represents a limitation of this study.

More studies are needed to address the post-transplant follow-up of non-CD-infected individuals who received organs from CD-infected donors and of CD-infected recipients who received organs from non-CD-infected donors towards evaluating the process of disease reactivation and patient outcome.

In summary, there was a high prevalence of CD and other coinfections among potential solid organ donors in the State of Ceará and the primary cause of death of deceased donors reactive for T. cruzi was stroke. This work highlights the importance of screening potential donors for CD.


We acknowledge Ceará State Center for Transplantation, Cearense Foundation for the Support of Scientific and Technological Development (FUNCAP) and the Graduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences of the Federal University of Ceará.


1. Associação Brasileira de Transplantes de Órgãos (ABTO). Dimensionamento dos Transplantes no Brasil e em cada estado (2010-2017). Registro Brasileiro de Transplantes. 2017; XXIII (4):9-15. [ Links ]

2. Lattes R, Linares L, Radisic M. Enfermedad de Chagas y Trasplante Renal. In: Morales-Buenrostro LE, Alberú J, editors. Infecciones en el Paciente Receptor de Trasplante Renal. Barcelona: P. Permanyer; 2012. p. 145-51. [ Links ]

3. Clemente WT, Pierrotti CL, Abdala E, Morris MI, Azevedo LS, Lopéz-Vélez R, et al. Recommendations for Management of Endemic Diseases and Travel Medicine in Solid-Organ Transplant Recipients and Donors: Latin America. Transplantation. 2018;102(2):193-208. [ Links ]

4. Pierrotti CL, Carvalho NB, Amorin JP, Pascual J, Kotton CN, Lopéz-Vélez R. Chagas Disease Recommendations for Solid-Organ Transplant Recipients and Donors. Transplantation.2018;102(2):S1-S7. [ Links ]

5. Kransdorf EP, Zakowski PC, Kobashigawa JA. Chagas disease in solid organ and heart transplantation. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2014;27(5):418-24. [ Links ]

6. World Health Organization (WHO). Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis). 2016. Cited 2017 March 17. Available from: Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs340/en/ . [ Links ]

7. Ministério da Saúde (MS). Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde. Coordenação Geral de esenvolvimento da Epidemiologia em Serviço. Guia de Vigilância em Saúde: volume único. Brasília: MS; 2017. 705p. Citado 2018 Maio 23. Disponível em: Disponível em: http://portalarquivos.saude.gov.br/images/pdf/2017/outubro/06/Volume-Unico-2017.pdf [ Links ]

8. Organização Pan-Americana de Saúde (OPAS). Chagas. Key facts on Neglected Infectious Diseases.. 2014. Cited 2017 January 20. Available from: Available from: http://www.paho.org/Hq/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_view&gid=24717&Item id= . [ Links ]

9. Martins-Melo F, Ramos Jr AN, Alencar CH, Heukelbach J. Mortality from neglected tropical diseases in Brazil, 2000-2013. Bull World Health Organ. 2016;94(2):103-10. [ Links ]

10. Freitas A, Freitas SPC, Gonçalves TCM, Lima Neto AS. Vigilância Entomológica dos Vetores da Doença de Chagas no Município de Farias Brito, estado do Ceará. Cad Saúde Colet. 2007;15(2):231-40. [ Links ]

11. Dias JCP, Evandro MM, Fernandes AL, Vinhaes MC. Esboço geral e perspectivas da doença de Chagas no Nordeste do Brasil. Cad Saúde Pública. 2000;16(2):13-34. [ Links ]

12. Baumel RM, D’Orsi E, Kupek E. Perfil sorológico em potenciais doadores de órgãos sólidos de Santa Catarina no período de 2001 a 2007. J Bras Transpl, São Paulo 2011;14(3):1547-56. [ Links ]

13. Westphal GA, Caldeira Filho M, Vieira KD, Zaclikevis VR, Bartz MCM, Wanzuita R, et al. Diretrizes para manutenção de múltiplos órgãos no potencial doador falecido. Parte I. Aspectos gerais e suporte hemodinâmico. Rev Bras Ter Intensiva. 2011;23(3): 255-68. [ Links ]

14. Dias JC, Ramos Jr AN, Gontijo ED, Luquetti A, Shikanai-Yasuda MA, Coura JR, et al. 2nd Brazilian Consensus on Chagas Disease, 2015. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2016;49(Suppl 1):3-60. [ Links ]

15. Freitas EC, Oliveira MF, Andrade MA, Vasconcelos ASOB, da Silva Filho JD, Cândido DS, et al. Prevalence of Chagas disease in a rural area in the state of Ceara, Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2015;57(5):431-3. [ Links ]

16. Borges-Pereira J, Sarquis O, Zauza PL, Brito C, Lima MM. Epidemiologia da doença de Chagas em quatro localidades rurais de Jaguaruana, Estado do Ceará. Soroprevalência da infecção, parasitemia e aspectos clínicosRev Soc Bras Med Trop . 2008;41(4):345-51. [ Links ]

17. Cavalcanti LPG, Rolim DB, Pires Neto RJ, Vilar DCLF, Nogueira JOL, Pompeu MML, et al. Microepidemia de doença de Chagas aguda por transmissão oral no Ceará. Cad Saúde Colet . 2009;17(4):911-21. [ Links ]

18. Freitas EC, Oliveira MF, Vasconcelos ASOB, da Silva Filho JD, Menezes CE, Gomes KCMS, et al. Analysis of the seroprevalence of and factors associated with Chagas disease in an endemic area in Northeastern Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo . 2017;50(1);44-51. [ Links ]

19. Dumonteil E. Update on Chagas disease in Mexico. Salud Publica Mex. 1999;41(4):322-7. [ Links ]

20. Watson CJ, Dark JH. Organ transplantation: historical perspective and current practice. Br J Anaesth. 2012;108(1):29-42. [ Links ]

21. Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN). Public Comment Open. 2014. Cited 2017 January 10. Available from: Available from: http://optn.transplant.hrsa.gov/ [ Links ]

22. Chagas Disease Argentine Collaborative Transplant Consortium, Casadei D. Chagas’ disease and solid organ transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2010;42(9):3354-9. [ Links ]

23. Rodrıguez-Romo R, Morales-Buenrostro LE, Reyes PA, Gracida C, Medeiros M, Mancilla E, et al. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi in kidney transplant donors and recipients in Mexico City. Transpl Infect Dis. 2013;15(6):639-44. [ Links ]

24. Kerndt PR, Waskin HA, Kirchhoff LV, Steurer F, Waterman SH, Nelson JM, et al. Prevalence of Antibody to Trypanosoma-cruzi Among Blood-Donors in Los-Angeles, California. Transfusion. 1991;31(9):814-8. [ Links ]

25. Moraes EL, Silva LBB, Moraes TC, Paixão NCS, Izumi NMS, Guarino AJ. The profile of potential organ and tissue donors. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2009;17(5):120-4. [ Links ]

26. Associação Brasileira de Transplantes de Órgãos. Dimensionamento dos Transplantes no Brasil e em cada estado. Registro Brasileiro de Transplantes 2013;XIX(4):1-100. [ Links ]

27. Fusco CC, Marcelino CAG, Araújo MN, Ayoub AC, Martins CP. Perfil dos doadores efetivos de múltiplos órgãos e tecidos viabilizados pela organização de procura de órgãos de uma instituição pública de cardiologia. J Bras Transplant. 2009;12(2):1109-12. [ Links ]

28. Guedes PMM, de Andrade CM, Nunes DF, de Sena Pereira N, Queiroga TBD, Machado-Coelho GL, et al. Inflammation enhances the risks of stroke and death in chronic Chagas disease patients. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016;10(4):e0004669. [ Links ]

29. Nunes MC, Barbosa MM, Rocha MO. Peculiar aspects of cardiogenic embolism in patients with Chagas’ cardiomyopathy: a transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiographic study. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2005;18(7):761-7. [ Links ]

30. Nunes MC, Kreuser LJ, Ribeiro AL, Sousa GR, Costa HS, Botoni FA, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of embolic cerebrovascular events associated with Chagas heart disease. Glob Heart. 2015;10(3):151-7. [ Links ]

31. Almeida EA, Ramos Jr AN, Correia D, Shikanai-Yasuda MA. Co-infection Trypanosoma cruzi/HIV: systematic review (1980-2010). Rev Soc Bras Med Trop . 2011;44(6):762-70. [ Links ]

32. Marques de Brito CM, Pires MQ, Pacheco RS. Chagas’ disease and HIV co-infection: genetic analyses of two Trypanosoma cruzi strains under experimental immunosuppression. Kinetoplastid Biol Dis. 2003;2(1):17. [ Links ]

33. Menghi R, de Gatta NC, Angeleri GA, Rocher CA, Palaoro IL. Trypanosoma cruzi: tripomastigotes en lıquido pleural de un paciente con SIDA. Rev Chilena Infectol. 2011;28(6):597-8. [ Links ]

34. Ministério da Saúde (MS). Portaria nº 2.600, de 21 de outubro de 2009. Aprova o Regulamento Técnico do Sistema Nacional de Transplantes. Brasília, DF: MS; 2009. Seção 1:77. [ Links ]

Financial Support: This study was supported by the Cearense Foundation for the Support of Scientific and Technological Development (FUNCAP) and the Federal University of Ceará (UFC).

Received: October 17, 2017; Accepted: August 07, 2018

Corresponding author: Ma. Alanna Carla da Costa. e-mail:alannacarla.costa@gmail.com.

Conflict of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.