Nádia Consuelo AragãoI; Gerson Azulim MüllerII,III; Valdir Queiroz BalbinoI; César Raimundo Lima Costa JuniorI; Carlos Santiago Figueirêdo JúniorI; Jerônimo AlencarIV; Carlos Brisola MarcondesIII
IDepartment of Genetics, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil IIGraduation in Entomology, Department of Zoology, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brazil IIIDepartment of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Centre of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil IVLaboratory of Diptera, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
INTRODUCTION: Besides mosquito species adapted to urban environments (Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus), only 15 species of Anopheles had been recorded in the State of Pernambuco.
METHODS: Human-landing mosquitoes were collected in Dois Irmãos Park, in Recife.
RESULTS: The first report for the state of Haemagogus janthinomys, an important vector of yellow fever virus, and 14 other species, including Trichoprosopon lampropus, a first reported for Brazil.
CONCLUSIONS: The mosquito fauna in the area is diversified and has potential medical and veterinary importance.
Key-words: Haemagogus janthinomys. New records. Pernambuco.
INTRODUÇÃO: Além de mosquitos adaptados ao ambiente urbano (Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti e Ae. albopictus), apenas 15 espécies de Anopheles haviam sido relatadas no Estado de Pernambuco.
MÉTODOS: Mosquitos que pousavam em humanos no Parque Dois Irmãos, em Recife foram coletados.
RESULTADOS: Haemagogus janthinomys, importante vetor de vírus de febre amarela, e outras 14 espécies são relatadas pela primeira vez no estado, incluindo Trichoprosopon lampropus, relatado pela primeira vez no Brasil.
CONCLUSÕES: A fauna de mosquitos na área é muito diversificada e tem potencial importância médica e veterinária.
Palavras-chaves: Haemagogus janthinomys. Novos relatos. Pernambuco.
The mosquito fauna of the north-eastern Brazilian state of Pernambuco has been poorly studied. In fact, besides several reports confirming Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, other species from the state have rarely been reported.
Pernambuco is situated in a tropical region, has a diversified climate and vegetation and knowledge of its mosquito fauna is very important. Besides studies concerning mosquitoes related to filariasis and dengue, very frequent diseases in several cities, data on other mosquitoes in the state is very scarce. Dirofilariasis was shown to occur in Recife1 and malaria transmission has occurred in the past. Although the state is currently outside the distribution of the sylvan cycle of yellow fever2, many cities are highly infested by Aedes aegypti, with many cases of dengue.
Collections were developed in a reservation (Dois Irmãos Park), in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. The park (http://www.parquedoisirmaos.pe.gov.br/; headquarter: 8º00’32.7″S 34º56’42.5″W, ca. 40m a.s.l.) was described previously3. Briefly, it includes two lagoons, surrounded by secondary Atlantic forest; it is very humid, mostly in winter, with diversified vegetation, including bromeliads and non-native bamboos. There is a zoo in the reservation and besides visitors to this zoo, many people from the densely populated neighborhood enter the forest.
Plastic suction tubes and collection boxes were used for mosquitoes landing on collectors, from 8am to 1pm, from July 27 2009 to November 28 2009. Mosquitoes were identified by keys4-6, checking original and complementary descriptions of each species. Genera were abbreviated as proposed by Reinert7.
The first reports for the State of Pernambuco of the following collected species, with the number of female specimens between parentheses: Coquillettidia hermanoi (17), Cq shannoni (9), Haemagogus janthinomys (5), Limatus durhamii (=Limatus durhami) (8), Mansonia wilsoni (3), Ochlerotatus hastatus/oligopistus/serratus (1), Oc scapularis (8), Sabethes tarsopus (1), Trichoprosopon lampropus (4), Wyeomyia arthrostigma (1), Wy coenonus/tarsata (1), Wy medioalbipes (5), Wy moerbista/cesari (1), Wy negrensis (1), Wy serratoria (1). This is the firstly report of Tr lampropus for Brazil.
At least 15 species not previously reported in Pernambuco were added to the known mosquito fauna of this state, which included, besides the urban species cited above, 15 of Anopheles: An albitarsis, An argyritarsis, An aquasalis (Plasmodium-infected), An bellator, An braziliensis, An cruzii, An darlingi, An eiseni, An fluminensis, An intermedius, An lutzi, An parvus, An peryassui, An strodei and An triannulatus.
Haemagogus janthinomys is an important vector of sylvan yellow fever2 and Mayaro virus8 and more thorough studies should be developed in Recife. Since it is still difficult to differentiate it from Hg capricornii9 and Hg leucocelaenus was recently reported in Natal10, Haemagogus mosquitoes from the north-east region of Brazil need to be carefully studied. Maraú (14º06’57″S 38º59’37″W)11 and Caravelas (17º42’48″S 39º59’55″W)9, both in the State of Bahia, are the most northern localities where Hg. janthinomys had previously been reported in Atlantic forest area.
Ochlerotatus scapularis has been incriminated as vector of Dirofilaria immitis in southeastern Brazil12. This mosquito has also been artificially infected by Rocio13 and yellow fever14 viruses and naturally infected by yellow fever virus in an outbreak in the State of Bahia15.
Females of mosquitoes of some Wyeomyia species (see above) and of Oc serratus and similar species occasionally still cannot be differentiated. Future collections mostly using light traps, in order to capture males, and examining breeding places, to capture immature forms, need to be developed for a more complete and secure identification.
The presence of Hg janthinomys and so many species of sylvan mosquitoes in an area where animals of several species (exotic and local) are present and many people circulate may induce the transmission of pathogens.
Ochlerotatus scapularis had been reported from the United States (Texas) to North Argentina, Sa tarsopus from Mexico to Peru and French Guiana, and in Brazil, it had been reported in the States of Amapá, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Tr lampropus, is first reported here for Brazil, had previously been reported only from Colombia. Wy negrensis had been reported only from Brazil and Wy arthrostigma, Wy serratoria and Wy medioalbipes from Brazil and other countries.
The high number of new reports of mosquito species for the State of Pernambuco, one of them new for Brazil, emphasizes the need to develop studies in forested areas in this huge country. The finding of a diversified Phlebotomine sandfly fauna exists in this reservation3, some of them potential vectors of Leishmania, including several species previously reported only in the Amazon region, reinforces the need of studies on the insect fauna in the area.
The authors would like to thank the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (Proc. – 01LB0205) and the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (Proc. – 690143/01-0) for the financial help to CBM work. GAM receives a PhD scholarship from the CNPq. CSF Jr and CRLC Jr received MSc scholarships from CNPq and FACEPE, respectively.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
Financial agency: BMBF and CNPq
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Dr. Carlos Brisola Marcondes
Deptº Microbiol. Imunol Parasitol/CCB/UFSC
88040-900 Florianópolis, SC, Brasil
Phone: 55 48 3721-5208
Received in 08/03/2010
Accepted in 07/04/2010